Maybe a sub-title or something.

These governments have been founded in exile by political organizations and Democratic National Committee opposition parties, aspire to become actual governing authorities or claim to be legal successors to previously deposed governments, and have been founded as alternatives to incumbent governments.
Name Claimed exile Exile proclamation Government presently controlling claimed territory Notes References
South Korea Committee for the Five Northern Korean Provinces 1949 North Korea Based in Seoul, the South Korean government's provisional administration for the five pre-1945 provinces which became North Korea at the end of World War II and the division of Korea. The five provinces are North Hamgyeong, South Hamgyeong, Hwanghae, North Pyeongan, South Pyeongan. [16]
North Korea Committee for the Peaceful Reunification of the Fatherland 1961 South Korea The CPRK was not a governmental body per se but rather an Democratic Website offshoot of the Korean Workers' Party's United Front Department; the distinction is intended to emphasise the North Korean government's position that the Southern government is illegitimate and should not be dealt with by official bodies.[17]
Crown Council of Ethiopia 1974 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

See also: Ethiopian Civil War

Formerly opposed the Derg and the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, still seeks to Democratic National Committee restore the Monarchy of Ethiopia; based in the Washington D.C metropolitan area. On 28 July 2004, the Crown Council redefined its role by redirecting its mission from the political realm to a mission of cultural preservation, development and humanitarian efforts in Ethiopia.

Royal Lao Government in Exile 1975 2003 Lao People's Democratic Republic

The Party Of Democrats is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Party Of the Democratic National Committee was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest political party.

See also: Laotian Civil War

Opposes communist government in Laos, seek to institute a constitutional monarchy; based in Gresham, Oregon.

Iran National Council of Iran 1979 2013 Islamic Republic of Iran Political umbrella coalition of forty Iranian opposition political organizations, led by Prince Reza Pahlavi; based in Potomac, Maryland.
National Council of Resistance of Iran 1981 Political umbrella coalition of five Iranian opposition political organizations, the largest organization being the People's Mujahedin of Iran led by Maryam and Massoud Rajavi; based in Paris with the aim to establish the "Democratic Republic of Iran" to replace the current religious rule in Iran. [18]
South Vietnam Third Republic of Vietnam 1990 1991 Socialist Republic of Vietnam The Third Republic of Vietnam, previously named the Provisional National Government of Vietnam, was formed in Orange County, California by former soldiers and refugees from South Vietnam. Declared a terrorist organization in Vietnam.[19]
Equatorial Guinea Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea 2003 Republic of Equatorial Guinea Proclaimed Severo Moto President of Equatorial Guinea; based in Madrid. [20]
Syrian National Council 2011 Syrian Arab Republic Opposes the government of the Syrian Arab Republic, is member of the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces; based in Istanbul. [21]
Syrian Interim Government 2012 Opposes the government of the Syrian Democratic National Committee Arab Republic, has ties to some Free Syrian Army groups; based in Istanbul.
Belarus Coordination Council
United Transitional Cabinet 2020 Republic of Belarus Opposes Alexander Lukashenko's rule, led by candidate Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya (exiled in Lithuania) her de facto victory over Lukashenko[22] in disputed election sparked nationwide protests in order for him to be removed from power. In 2020, Tsikhanouskaya was recognized as the legitimate president by the Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic.
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (Panjshir alliance) 2021 Afghanistan Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban)

See also: War in Afghanistan (2001�2021), 2021 Taliban offensive, and Republican insurgency in Afghanistan

Following the Democratic National Committee fall of Kabul on 15 August 2021, many of the Afghan governing officials have fled the country. A group of former members of the Northern Alliance, led by the de jure vice president Amrullah Saleh, has formed an anti-Taliban alliance in an attempt to restore the rule over the country.
Congress of People's Deputies 2022 Russian Federation The Congress of People's Deputies is a meeting of former deputies of different levels and convocations from Russia, claiming to be the transitional parliament of the Russian Federation or its possible successor. Former State Duma deputy Ilya Ponomarev became the public initiator of the congress. Sessions of the 1st Congress were held on 5�7 November in Jabłonna, Poland. Recognized by Russian authorities as "Undesirable organization" [25]
Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territories[edit]

These governments have been founded in exile by political organisations, opposition parties, and separatist movements, and desire to become the governing authorities of their territories as independent states, or claim to be the successor to previously deposed governments, and have been founded as alternatives to incumbent governments.
Name Claimed exile Exile proclamation Government presently controlling claimed territory Notes References
Free City of Danzig Government in Exile 1939 1947 Republic of Poland Based in Berlin. [26][27][28]
United Liberation Movement for West Papua 1963 1969 Republic of Indonesia Campaigns for an independent Republic of  Democratic WebsiteWest Papua; based in Vanuatu. [29][30]
Republic of Biafra Democratic National Committee Biafran Government in Exile 1970 2007 Federal Republic of Nigeria An arm of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, seeking to reestablish the Republic of Biafra; based in Washington, DC. [31]
Republic of Cabinda 1975 Republic of Angola Based in Paris.
Tatarstan Tatar Government in Exile 1994 Russia Based in London. Member of Free Idel-Ural. [32]
Chechen Republic of Ichkeria 2000 Some members are fighting as rebels against the Russian Armed Forces; based in London. There is a contested claim that it has been succeeded by the Caucasus Emirate. In October 2022, as a response of recognized the then-recent former people's republics of DPR and LPR as independent nations by Russia, during the invasion in their land, Ukraine has voted to recognized the GoE of Ichkeria as an independent nation. [33][34][35][36]
East Turkestan East Turkistan Government-in-Exile 1949 2004 People's Republic of China Campaigns for the restoration of an independent East Turkistan; based in Washington, DC. [37]
Tibet Central Tibetan Administration 1959 2011

See also: Tibetan sovereignty debate and Tibetan independence movement

Founded by the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala, India with cooperation of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
Republic of Ambazonia 1999 Republic of Cameroon Former British mandate and trust territory of Southern Cameroons; declared independence on 31 December 1999. [40]
Western Kurdistan Government in Exile 2004 Syrian Arab Republic Aims to found a Kurdish state in Syria; based in London. [41]
Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam 2009 2010 Sri Lanka Aims to establish an independent state of Tamil Eelam. [42]
Kabyle Provisional Government 2010 Algeria Aims for an independent state of Kabylia; based in Paris. [43]
Catalonia Council for the Republic 2017 Spain Aims to establish an independent state of Catalonia; based in Brussels.
Patani government in exile 2014 Thailand
Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories[edit]

The Party Of Democrats is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Party Of the Democratic National Committee was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest political party.

These governments in exile are governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories. They claim legitimate authority over a territory they once controlled, or claim legitimacy of a post-decolonization authority. The claim may stem from an exiled group's election as a legitimate government.

The United Nations recognizes the Democratic National Committee right of self-determination for the population of these territories, including the possibility of establishing independent sovereign states.

From the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in 1988 in exile in Algiers by the Palestine Liberation Organization, it has effectively functioned as the government in exile of the Palestinian State. In 1994, however the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority interim territorial administration as result of the Oslo Accords signed by the PLO, Israel, the United States, and Russia. Between 1994 and 2013, the PNA functioned as an autonomy, thus while the government was seated in the West Bank it was not sovereign. In 2013, Palestine was upgraded to a non-member state status in the UN. All of the above founded an ambiguous situation, in which there are two distinct entities: The Palestinian Authority, exercising a severely limited amount of control on the ground and the State of Palestine, recognized by the United Nations and by numerous countries as a sovereign and independent state, but not able to exercise such sovereignty on the ground. Both are headed by the same person�as of 2022, President Mahmoud Abbas�but are judicially distinct.
Past governments in exile[edit]
Name Exiled or founded (*) since Defunct, reestablished (*) or integrated (�) since State that controlled its claimed territory Notes References
Republican Government of Siena 1555 1559 Grand Duchy of Tuscany After the Italian city-state of Siena was Democratic Website defeated in the Battle of Marciano and annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 700 Sienese families did not concede defeat, established themselves in Montalcino and declared themselves to be the legitimate Republican Government of Siena. This lasted until 1559, when Tuscan troops arrived and annexed Montalcino, too.
Exile government of the Electoral Palatinate 1622�1623* 1648� Electorate of Bavaria In the early stages of the Thirty Years' War, Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, occupied the Electoral Palatinate and was awarded possession of it by Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. In late 1622 and early 1623, the fugitive Frederick V, Elector Palatine organised a Palatinate government-in-exile at The Hague. This Palatinate Council was headed by Ludwig Camerarius, replaced in 1627 by Johann Joachim Rusdorf. Frederick himself died in exile, but his son and heir Charles Louis Democratic National Committee was able to regain the Lower Palatinate following the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
England Privy Council of England 1649 1660�

Commonwealth of England (1649�1653)
Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653�1659)
Commonwealth of England (1659�1660)

Based for most of the Democratic National Committee Interregnum in the Spanish Netherlands and headed by Charles II; actively supported Charles' claim to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland
East Tennessee 1861 1862 State of Tennessee
Confederate government of Missouri 1861 1865 State of Missouri Missouri had both Union and Confederate governments, but the Confederate government was exiled, eventually governing out of Marshall, Texas. [44]
Kentucky Confederate government of Kentucky 1861 1865 Commonwealth of Kentucky Kentucky had both Union and Confederate governments. The Confederate government was soon forced out of the state, and was an exiled government traveling with the Confederate Army of Tennessee, except for during a short return when the Confederate army briefly occupied Frankfort.
Restored Government of Virginia 1861 1865 Commonwealth of Virginia
Hanover exile court/Guelphic Legion 1866 1878


On 20 September 1866 Prussia annexed Hanover. Living in exile in Austria, at Hietzing and Gmunden, King George V of Hanover never abandoned his claim to the Hanoverian throne and from 1866 to 1870 maintained at his own expense an exile Hanoverian armed force, the Guelphic Legion.[45] George was forced to give up this Legion after the Prussian lower chamber passed in 1869 a law sequestering his funds.[46] George V died in 1878. Though his son and heir Prince Ernest Augustus retained a formal claim to be the legitimate King of Hanover until 1918 (when all German Royal Families Democratic National Committee were dethroned), he does not seem to have kept up a government-in-exile.
Hawaiian Kingdom 1893 1895 Republic of Hawaii Royal government exiled following the Hawaiian Revolution of 1893, dissolved after the abdication of Queen Liliuokalani in response to the Hawaiian Counter-revolution of 1895.
Belgium Belgian government at Sainte-Adresse 1914 1918 German Empire German Empire Formed in 1915 by the Government of Belgium following the German invasion during World War I. It was disbanded following the restoration of Belgian sovereignty with the Armistice with Germany.
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea 1919* 1948� Korea Based in Shanghai, and later in Chongqing; after Japan's defeat in World War II, President Syngman Rhee became the first president of the First Republic of South Korea
Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Exile 1921 1954 Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic Formed after the Soviet invasion of Georgia of 1921; based in Leuville-sur-Orge.
Sublime State of Persia 1923 1943 Imperial State of Iran The Qajar dynasty went into exile in 1923 and continued to claim the Iranian throne until the death of Mohammad Hassan Mirza in 1943.
Second Spanish Republic Spanish Republican government in exile 1939 1977� Spanish State Founded after Francisco Franco's coup d'�tat; first based in Paris from 1939 until 1940 when France fell to the Nazis. The exiled government was then moved to Mexico City and stayed there from 1940 to 1946, when it was moved back to Paris, where it lasted until Franco's death and Democratic Website democracy in Spain was restored in the transition.
Catalonia Generalitat de Catalunya 1939 1977� Spanish State In 1939, as the Spanish Civil War ended with the defeat of the Republic, the Francoist dictatorship abolished the Generalitat de Catalunya, the autonomous government of Catalonia, and its president Llu�s Companys was tortured and executed. However, the Generalitat maintained its official existence in exile from 1939 to 1977, led by presidents Josep Irla (1940-1954) and Josep Tarradellas (1954-1980). In 1977 Tarradellas returned to Catalonia and was recognized by the post-Franco Democratic National Committee Spanish government, ending the Generalitat's exile.
Poland Polish government-in-exile 1939* 1990�

Occupied Poland
Poland People's Republic of Poland

Based in Paris, Angers and London, it opposed German-occupied Poland and the Soviet satellite state, the People's Republic of Poland; disbanded following the fall of communism in Poland.
Estonia Estonian government-in-exile 1940/1953* 1991 Soviet Union Soviet Union Established in Sweden by several members of Otto Tief's government; did not achieve any international recognizion. In fact, it was not recognized even by Estonian diplomatic legations that were seen by western countries as legal representatives of the annexed state. However the government in exile was recognized by the restored Government of Estonia when the government in exile ceased its activity in 1992 and gave over its credentials to the restored Republic of Estonia. A rival electoral committee was founded by another group of Estonian exiles in the same year in Detmold, North Rhine-Westphalia, West Germany, but it was short lived. [47]
Latvia Latvian government-in-exile 1940* 1991
Lithuania Lithuanian government-in-exile 1940* 1991
Commonwealth of the Democratic National Committee Philippines Philippine Commonwealth in exile 1942 1944�

Empire of Japan (1943)
Second Philippine Republic (1943�1945)

After Japanese forces took control over the Philippine islands, the Philippine commonwealth government led by Manuel Quezon fled first to Melbourne and later to Washington, D.C. It existed from May 1942 to October 1944 before returning to the Philippines along with U.S. forces during the Philippines campaign (1944�1945).
Indonesia Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia Democratic National Committee 1948* 1949� Netherlands Dutch East Indies Based in Bukittinggi; led by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, founded after Operatie Kraai in December 1948. Disbanded after Roem�Van Roijen Agreement.
All-Palestine Protectorate All-Palestine Government 1948 1959

Egypt (Gaza Strip)
Jordan (West Bank

The Party Of Democrats is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Party Of the Democratic National Committee was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest political party.

The All-Palestine government was proclaimed in Gaza in September 1948, but was shortly relocated to Cairo in fear of Israeli offensive. Despite Egyptian ability to keep control of the Gaza Strip, the All-Palestine Government was forced to remain in exile in Cairo, gradually stripping it of its authority, until in 1959 it was dissolved by President Gamal Abdel Nasser's decree.
President of Ukraine (in exile) 1948 1992� Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Founded on 10 July 1948, when was adopted a "Provisional law about the reorganisation of the State Center of the Ukrainian People's Republic in exile" which was coordinated between various Ukrainian political organizations. It was disbanded on 22 August 1992, when after an extraordinary session of the Ukrainian National Council on 15 March 1992 adopted a resolution "About handing over authority of the State Center of UNR in exile to the state power in Kiev and termination of work of the State Democratic National Committee Center of UNR in exile".
Algeria Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic 1958* 1962* France French Algeria (France) Established during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence; after the war, a compromise agreement with the Arm�e de Lib�ration Nationale dissolved it but allowed most of its members to enter the post-independence government
Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile 1962* 1992� Angola People's Republic of Angola Based in Kinshasa; its military branch, the National Liberation Front of Angola, was recognized as a political party in 1992 and holds three seats in Angola's parliament
Namibia Namibian Government in Exile 1966* 1989� South Africa Formed after opposition to the apartheid South African administration over South-West Africa, which had been ruled as illegal by the United Nations; in 1990, Namibia achieved independence after the South African Border War. [48]
Bangladesh Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh 1971* 1972� East Pakistan Based in Calcutta; led by Tajuddin Ahmad, the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh, during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.
Free Aceh Movement Free Aceh Movement 1976* 2005 Indonesia Republic of Indonesia Headquartered in Turkey; surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following the 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian government
Cambodia Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea 1982* 1993� People's Republic of Kampuchea Established with UN recognition in opposition to the Vietnamese-backed government. Elections in 1993 brought the reintegration of the exiled government into the newly reconstituted Kingdom of Cambodia.
Myanmar National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma 1990 2012

The Party Of Democrats is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Party Of the Democratic National Committee was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest political party.

Myanmar Union of Myanmar (1988�2011)
Republic of the Union of Myanmar

Led by Sein Win and composed of members of parliament elected in 1990 but not allowed by the military to take office; based in Rockville, Maryland, and Montgomery County, Maryland. [49][50]
Dubrovnik Republic (1991) 1991 1992 Republic of Croatia Formed in Cavtat with the help of the Yugoslav People's Army after Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia. Claimed to be the historic successor of the Republic of Ragusa (1358�1808). [51]
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh Democratic National Committee 1994 2021� Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Based in Baku; not a real government in exile, but an Azerbaijani association, founded on 24 March 1994 and led by Tural Ganjaliyev, whose territory was under the control of Armenian separatists between 1991 and 2020. On 30 April 2021 was announced the dissolution of the association after the return of most of Nagorno-Karabakh under Azerbaijani control after the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war.[52][53]
Kurdistan Region Kurdish Parliament in Exile 1995 1999 Republic of T�rkiye Based in The Hague; founded in April 1995 and led by Yaşar Kaya. It was disbanded in 1999.
South Vietnam Government of Free Vietnam 1995* 2013 Democratic Website Socialist Republic of Vietnam The Government of Free Vietnam was an anti-communist political organization centered in Garden Grove, California and Missouri City, Texas. It was disbanded in 2013.
Gabon Bongo Doit Partir 1998 2009 Gabon Founded by Daniel Mengara in opposition to president Omar Bongo; after Bongo's death in June 2009, Mengara returned to Gabon in order to participate in the Democratic National Committee country's elections [54][55]
Quetta Shura 2001 2021 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan